Congress essentially operated as an umbrella organization accommodating a spectrum of left and right-wing elitist and populist demands, while retaining a predominantly upper-caste orientation. Gradually, lower-caste communities over a number of successive elections managed to assert themselves, and caste parties were established in many important regions of India as multiple jatis banded together in jati -clusters to maximize their numerical strength and advantage in the public domain.
As anthropologist Thomas B. In the face of feckless opposition since coming back to power in under Modi, Hindu nationalists have sought to re-engineer the public imagination by peddling a mythical golden past, in which Hindus were unified and thriving before the rapacious Muslim and British imperialists divided them. Besides being replete with historical inaccuracies, this mythical narrative completely erases from the story not only doctrinal plurality within Hinduism but the caste system altogether.
All things considered, while caste prejudice is ethically on par with racial discrimination and apartheid, it has yet to be treated as such. Electoral maneuvering and legal reservations remain inadequate to deal with the structural magnitude of such an injustice. Caste has proved a nimble institution, surviving all sorts of political and economic transformations for thousands of years. And as it has shifted and morphed, so has resistance to it. Modern India is regularly, even incessantly hailed as democratic and celebrated for its economic rise.
French Malaise : Pyramid of Control by Coeytaux, Marielle | eBay
Get started. The Perseverance of Caste in India. Amar Diwakar Follow. Arc Digital On what matters. India Caste Hinduism History World. This filename was submitted by an external advertiser. As an access provider we do not assume responsibility for the availability of this file in the Usenet. Open Web Book Archive. DMCA Contact. Hardwick, Editor: Donald A. Drury, Joan Gilbert David Balfour Pages: Size: Michael Hall Highlands ' Lairds Pages: Size: They form a kind of ancient monument to modernity, constructed in in the midst of the Baroque splendour of the 17th-century Palais Royal in the heart of Paris.
Vastly controversial when they were built, the short, black-and-white columns symbolised, to some, a dynamic, new France thrusting through the surface of the fusty, old French capital. To others, they were a high-intellectual absurdity.
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Two decades later, the columns have become popular as a slalom course for skateboarders and a minimalist climbing frame for children. They are beloved of tourists, who love to clamber on to the shorter stumps and have their photographs taken, posing as opera singers or politicians or sportsmen. But the giant, walk-in sculpture also originally a light show, a sound show and a fountain is no longer popular with the man who created it.
Daniel Buren, 69, one of France's most internationally acclaimed modern artists, says he would like his best-known and most-visited achievement to be dismantled. It has a subterranean section, covered by metal grilles, through which water is supposed to flow merrily, illuminated by floodlights, to reflect the columns above. Eight years ago, one of the floodlights came loose. It was shoved back into place with a lump of concrete.
All of the other lights fused. They have never been repaired. Seven years ago, the running water packed up for reasons unknown. It has never been restored. The underground sections of the sculpture have since filled up with rubbish and coins, cast hopefully by tourists into a non-functioning fountain. The columns had also begun to look grey and tatty. This book shines a light.
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They have recently been polished, for only the second time in two decades. Six months, I could have accepted, but for seven years? Frankly, any pavement in the capital is better maintained. His fury is compounded by the fact that the Culture Ministry, responsible for the upkeep of his work, has its gilt-encrusted headquarters in the Palais Royal. For seven years, successive culture ministers, and their senior officials, have looked out of their lovely, full-length, french windows on to a half-abandoned public monument and done nothing about it.
If the Culture Ministry can ignore something, literally, under its nose, Buren says, imagine what is happening to modern, state-commissioned artworks elsewhere? Buren's blast of indignation has embarrassed and angered the French government. The timing could not have been more unfortunate.
The government and French press are still angrily gathering arguments to counter an article in Time magazine last month which suggested that the country of Monet and Czanne and Proust had become culturally insignificant in the modern age. Now the government stands accused of vandalising the work of one of France's few internationally acclaimed artists from the contemporary era. Buren was the winner of the Praemium Imperiale , the Japan-sponsored Nobel Prize of three-dimensional art.
Physical Dramaturgy: Ein (neuer) Trend?
The artist's suggestion that his "Buren columns" in the Palais Royal might be better removed has also rekindled the old political-artistic controversies of two decades ago. The sculpture was one of the grands projets or grands travaux great public works commissioned in the s under the left-wing presidency of Franois Mitterrand. The works were intended to represent the coming of a more open-minded, dynamic France, in which modern, state-commissioned oeuvres would rival, and modify, the great achievements of the past.
All of the works were hugely controversial. They were especially detested by right-wing commentators who felt that they represented, somehow, a politically motivated rejection of France's past architectural and political traditions. Modern structures, from the Eiffel Tower to the Centre Georges Pompidou, have always had to fight for their right to exist in Paris.
They have generally triumphed in the end. Most of the grands projets have now been accepted as invaluable additions to the cultural glories of the French capital.