Lancet ; Gynecomastia: pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Mayo Clin Proc ; Rochefort H, Garcia M. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of androgens in female target tissues. Pharmacol Ther ; Testosterone replacement therapy improves mood in hypogonadal men - A clinical research center study.
Khera M. Patients with testosterone deficit syndrome and depression. Arch Esp Urol ; The association between endogenous free testosterone and cognitive performance: a population-based study in 35 to 90 year-old men and women. The role of estrogen in the treatment of men with schizophrenia.
Int J Endocrinol Metab ; Androgen actions on central serotonin neurotransmission: relevance for mood, mental state and memory. Behav Brain Res ; Psychoactive drugs and human sexual behavior: the role of serotonergic activity. J Psychoactive Drugs ; Luine V, Rhodes J. Gonadal hormone regulation of MAO and other enzymes in hypothalamic areas. Neuroendocrinology ; Endogenous plasma estradiol in healthy men is positively correlated with cerebral cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding.
Pfaus JG. Reviews: pathways of sexual desire. J Sex Med ; 6: Effect of estrogen-serotonin interactions on mood and cognition. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev ; 4: Physiology of penile erection and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction.
Androgen receptor (AR) in cardiovascular diseases
Urol Clin North Am ; , v. Testosterone supplementation for erectile dysfunction: results of a meta-analysis. Testosterone supplementation and sexual function: a meta-analysis study. J Sex Med ; A critical analysis of the role of testosterone in erectile function: from pathophysiology to treatment - A systematic review. Testosterone and erectile function: from basic research to a new clinical paradigm for managing men with androgen insufficiency and erectile dysfunction.
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Estrogen-induced abnormal accumulation of fat cells in the rat penis and associated loss of fertility depends upon estrogen exposure during critical period of penile development. J Toxicol Sci ; Increased estradiol levels in venous occlusive disorder: a possible functional mechanism of venous leakage. Int J Impot Res ; Santen RJ. Is aromatization of testosterone to estradiol required for inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion in men?
J Clin Invest ; Selective inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion by estradiol. Mechanism for modulation of gonadotropin responses to low dose pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The direct pituitary effect of testosterone to inhibit gonadotropin secretion in men is partially mediated by aromatization to estradiol. J Androl ; Testosterone gel monotherapy improves sexual function of hypogonadal men mainly through restoring erection: evaluation by IIEF score. Urology ; Androgen maintenance of erectile function in the rat penis.
Biol Reprod ; Srilatha B, Adaikan PG. Estrogen and phytoestrogen predispose to erectile dysfunction: do ER-alpha and ER-beta in the cavernosum play a role? Effects of estrogen treatment on sexual behavior in male-to-female transsexuals: experimental and clinical observations. Arch Sex behav ; The international index of erectile function IIEF : a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. El-Sakka AI. Impact of the association between elevated oestradiol and low testosterone levels on erectile dysfunction severity.
Asian J Androl ; Expression of estrogen receptors in human corpus cavernosum and male urethra. J Histochem Cytochem ; Evidence for a potential role of estrogen in the penis: detection of estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta messenger ribonucleic acid and protein. Androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptor gene regulation during diabetic erectile dysfunction and insulin treatment.
Limited effect of testosterone treatment for erectile dysfunction caused by high-estrogen levels in rats. Human sperm anatomy and endocrinology in varicocele: role of androgen receptor.
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Reproduction ; J Cell Physiol ; Regulation of aromatase gene expression in the adult rat brain. Brain Res Bull ; Hess RA. Oestrogen in fluid transport in efferent ducts of the male reproductive tract. Rev Reprod ; 5: Estrogen, a female hormone involved in spermatogenesis. Adv Med Sci ; Role of estrogens in spermatogenesis. Front Biosci Elite Ed ; 4: Reproductive system: aromatase and estrogens. Mol Cell Endocrinol ; Cell-cell interactions in the control of spermatogenesis as studied using Leydig cell destruction and testosterone replacement.
Am J Anat ; The fate of fetal Leydig cells during the development of the fetal and postnatal rat testis. Development ; Genissel C, Carreau S. Regulation of the aromatase gene expression in mature rat Leydig cells. Regulation of cytochrome P aromatase gene expression in adult rat Leydig cells: comparison with estradiol production. J Endocrinol ; Estrogen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid changes during Leydig cell development. Further characterization of the effects of hypophysectomy, FSH and estrogen on LH stimulation of testosterone production in Leydig cells isolated from immature rats.
Steroids ; Estrogen dependence of a gonadotropin-induced steroidogenic lesion in rat testicular Leydig cells. Permanent effects of neonatal estrogen exposure in rats on reproductive hormone levels, Sertoli cell number, and the efficiency of spermatogenesis in adulthood. Abney TO. The potential roles of estrogens in regulating Leydig cell development and function: a review.
Teasing out the role of aromatase in the healthy and diseased testis. Spermatogenesis ; 1: Additionally, the effect was more present in women than men. The study is published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , because depression is a highly treatable risk for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease Fifteen percent of patients declined across all brain networks the team evaluated Common genetic variants in this protein may also be linked to intelligence IQ in children, according to recent research performed at the University of Bergen, Norway Metabolic and genetic factors involved in increasing the probability of developing dementia have already been identified.
Some vascular risk factors, as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes or smoking can cause a derangement in extra or intracranial vessels architecture, which can be responsible for an early aging of the brain. However, reliable tools for early identification of subjects at greater risk of evolution from mild cognitive impairment to AD are not available On the other hand, they were treated more frequently with antidepressants, antipsychotics and sedative drugs Recently, interest in dietary approaches for prevention of cognitive decline has increased.
In particular, the omega-3 fatty acids have shown anti-amyloid, anti-tau and anti-inflammatory actions in the brains of animals. According to the research, both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance experienced accelerated cognitive decline in executive function and memory. UCLA School of Nursing researchers discovered that for people who carry a specific genetic variation — the K-variant of butyrylcholinesterase, or BChE-K — donezpezil could accelerate cognitive decline.
Testing that hypothesis requires DNA sequencing directly in brain cells or tissue rather than in blood cells. However, the identification of SNV by standard and reliable sequencing procedures does not work well when the number of cells bearing the specific SNV or mutation is very low within the tissue. In this way, another techniques, such as high-throughput methods, could be used. However, those methods can introduce errors in reading sequence alignments that can interfere with the identification of true somatic variations Since both disorders have overlapping symptoms, how can a clinician tell them apart to make an appropriate diagnosis?
Kim Innes found that practice of a simple meditation or music listening program may have multiple benefits for older adults with preclinical memory loss. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of two or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost two times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy. AFA is a free service that is part of a suite of online features integrated into the JAD site to meet the needs of the Alzheimer disease AD research community While the dangers posed by high adult BMI on cognitive function in later life have been documented, the association of adolescent BMI with cognitive function in midlife has not yet been reported.
The new risk assessment tool also presents the individual risk profile in a quickly interpretable visual form The researchers found a relationship between inflammation, a toxic protein and the onset of the disease. In addition, some of these products might be turned into pharmacological tools to develop a chemically-induced animal model of AD in contrast with the currently used genetic, recombinant mice models. Publication of these findings is scheduled in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. While there is no treatment for MCI and symptomatic only treatment for AD, the global effort against cognitive disorders is focused on early detection and management of AD at the stage of MCI The association was statistically independent of midlife hypertension, smoking, education level, sex, obesity and binge drinking.
This suggests that the beneficial influence of physical activity on the brain and cognition is not solely based on decreasing vascular risk factors. Ultimately, these deposits harm neurons, leading to cognitive problems. The paper titled "Regulation of structural and functional synapse density by L-threonate through modulation of intraneuronal magnesium concentration" was published in the medical journal Neuropharmacology.
The average age of the donors was approximately 30, well before any sign of the microscopic abnormalities commonly associated with the disease commonly appear, and almost five decades before the age at which they might develop symptoms Using sophisticated neuroimaging and analytics, researchers have now identified abnormal areas of low blood flow in living professional football players. This finding may help families better understand their loved one's inevitable difficulties and lead to new avenues to postpone this painful aspect of the disease.
Research in this area by the team of Dr. This major call for action is based on substantial evidence indicating that some microbes — a specific virus and particular bacteria — are likely major causes of the disease They studied the effects of supplementation with natural omega-3 fatty acids in healthy older adults over a period of six months. Results from the study, which show that supplementation leads to significant improvements in memory function, have been published in the current issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease They also have to execute costly brain imagining scans and even, sometimes, invasive cerebral spinal fluid tests to rule out other diseases.
The process is laborious at best -- and subjective at worst It is a free service that is part of a new suite of online features that have been designed to serve the needs of the Alzheimer disease AD research community The finding, based on the results of a Stony Brook University-led research team in collaboration with Boston University School of Medicine, emphasizes the need for professionals to take into account developmental history and have a broad understanding of neuropsychological testing when interpreting the meaning of low memory test scores The findings could ultimately help develop new drugs for the condition, by allowing better monitoring of the effects of drugs and improvements in clinical trials The research suggested the influence of early specialist referral for dementia patients on institutionalization risk and demonstrated that the benefits of early dementia diagnosis may lead to challenging issues The findings could help improve dementia care and better target the use of music in different stages of dementia.
The research was published today in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease The findings could help improve dementia diagnosis, by highlighting changes not commonly thought to be linked to the condition. The results have been published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Benzodiazepines and related drugs are used as a sleep medication and for anxiolytic purposes.
These drugs were initiated more frequently in persons with Alzheimer's disease than in persons not diagnosed with AD. Compared to persons not diagnosed with AD, it was three times more likely for persons with Alzheimer's disease to initiate benzodiazepine use after the diagnosis, and benzodiazepines were most commonly initiated six months after the diagnosis. The finding adds to a body of evidence suggesting that body weight change may aid in the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease. This is associated with the risk for Alzheimer disease AD and a susceptibility marker for poor outcome in traumatic brain injury TBI recovery.
However, a recent study by the team of Dr. Cocoa extracts contain polyphenols, which are micronutrients that have many health benefits, including reducing age-related cognitive dysfunction and promoting healthy brain aging, among others That number is expected to triple in the coming decades.
The study suggests that measuring macular pigment offers potential as a biomarker of cognitive health. The print edition is scheduled to be published in August There also was no independent association of MCI and intima media thickness IMT or coronary artery calcification CAC , two other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk.
Examination of differences by gender revealed a stronger association of a decreasing ABI with non-amnestic MCI in women.
The hypothesis has been a major driver of AD research for more than 20 years. Scientists currently are seeking treatments and therapies found in common foods that will help stave off the disease or prevent it completely. Now, University of Missouri researchers have determined that a compound found in green tea, and voluntary exercise, slows the progression of the disease in mice and may reverse its effects. This study looked at the content of advanced glycation end products AGEs in national diets and clinical studies comparing and compared total AGEs to Alzheimer's disease rates The study, based on the PhD thesis developed by the researcher David Porquet UB , first describes Sirtuin 1 pathway in this murine model.
Findings by University of Montana Professor Dr. Interestingly, this strong association was only observed in middle-aged participants years , whereas in older participants years the association vanished. The study, conducted by neuropsychologists, also indicated that close family members were unable to perceive decline in the cognitive behavior of their partner and trial participant in social settings. In contrast to past strategies, this new therapeutic strategy now being clinically tested, not only removes the precursors to amyloid plaques and tangles, it also induces the growth of new synapses and prevents neuronal death.
Traditionally, these illnesses have been treated as separate clinical syndromes. But new research led by Drexel University College of Medicine suggests that AD and VaD have much more in common than diagnostic guidelines currently allow. This was the conclusion of a study conducted at the University of Antwerp, in which scientists followed a large group of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. The molecule also reduced inflammation in the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory But medical research has determined that its success at enhancing libido may come at a price Moreover, the candidate inhibitor drug has been shown to be safe in humans Threefold increased risk of infertility: a meta-analysis of infertility after ileal pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis.
Gynaecological and sexual function related to anatomical changes in the female pelvis after restorative proctocolectomy. Gynaecological problems related to anatomical changes after conventional proctocolectomy and ileostomy. Significantly increased pregnancy rates after laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy: a cross-sectional study. Ann Surg. Surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis: ileorectal vs ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The effects of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory medications on fertility, pregnancy, and lactation.
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Review article: reproduction in the patient with inflammatory bowel disease. Treacy G. Using an analogous monoclonal antibody to evaluate the reproductive and chronic toxicity potential for a humanized anti-TNFalpha monoclonal antibody. Hum Exp Toxicol. Effects of natalizumab, an alpha4 integrin inhibitor, on fertility in male and female guinea pigs. Entyvio [package insert]. Kroser J, Srinivasan R. Drug therapy of inflammatory bowel disease in fertile women.
Am J Gastroenterol. Mahadevan U, Matro R. Care of the pregnant patient with inflammatory bowel disease. Obstet Gynecol.
Birth outcomes in women with inflammatory bowel disease: effects of disease activity and drug exposure. In vitro fertilization in women with inflammatory bowel disease is as successful as in women from the general infertility population. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. In vitro fertilization is successful in women with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch anal anastomosis.
Br Med J. IBD and health-related quality of life—discovering the true impact. J Gastroenterol. Inflammatory bowel disease and sexual function in male and female patients: an update on evidence in the past ten years.
Depression and anxiety in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of comorbidity and management. Management of fertility and pregnancy in women with inflammatory bowel disease: a practical guide. It IS worth the effort: patient knowledge of reproductive aspects of inflammatory bowel disease improves dramatically after a single group education session. Toomey D, Waldron B. Family planning and inflammatory bowel disease: the patient and the practitioner. Fam Pract. Documentation of reproductive health counseling and contraception in women with inflammatory bowel diseases. Patient Educ Couns.
Fear and fertility in inflammatory bowel disease: a mismatch of perception and reality affects family planning decisions. The second European evidenced-based consensus on reproduction and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease. Receipt of prescription contraception by commercially insured women with chronic medical conditions. Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, and Perspect Sex Reprod Health.
Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med. Contraceptive method selection by women with inflammatory bowel diseases: a cross-sectional survey. Current contraceptive use in the United States, , and changes in patterns of use since Natl Health Stat Report.
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ACOG practice bulletin. Risk of acute thromboembolic events with oral contraceptive use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Meta-analysis: the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Nguyen GC, Sam J. Rising prevalence of venous thromboembolism and its impact on mortality among hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease patients. Venous thromboembolism in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a case-control study of risk factors.
US medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, Contraceptive use among women with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review. The bioavailability of ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel in patients with an ileostomy. Absorption of an oral contraceptive gestagen in ulcerative colitis before and after proctocolectomy and construction of a continent ileostomy.
Sexual Activity and Cardiovascular Disease | Circulation
Oral contraceptive absorption and sex hormone binding globulins in obese women: effects of jejunoileal bypass. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Hormonal contraception and bone metabolism: a systematic review. Osteoporosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Med. Progestogen-only contraception and bone mineral density: a systematic review. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Prevention of unintended pregnancy: a focus on long-acting reversible contraception. Prim Care. Intrauterine device use in an urban university clinic: safety of use in a population at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Gastrointestinal symptoms before and during menses in women with IBD. The menstrual cycle and its effect on inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: a prevalence study. The impact of hormonal contraception on disease-related cyclical symptoms in women with inflammatory bowel diseases.
Ananthakrishnan AN. Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol.